Developed countries guarantee high protection in agriculture through a number of very high tariffs, including peaks (tariffs above 15%), tariff escalation (tariffs that increase with the degree of processing) and restrictive tariff quotas (limits on the quantity that can be imported at a lower rate). The average customs protection in agriculture is about nine times higher than in manufacturing. In addition, agricultural subsidies in developed countries, which account for 2/3 of Africa`s total GDP, undermine developing countries` agricultural sectors and exports by lowering world prices and anticipating them in markets. For example, the European Commission spends €2.7 billion a year to make sugar profitable for European farmers, while excluding cheap imports of tropical sugar.  Bertil Ohlin published this theory in 1933. For a brief explanation of the Heckscher-Ohlin theory, see nobelprize.org/educational_games/economics/trade/ohlin.html. The Heckscher-Ohlin model, which is good for projecting likely business models between countries where the factors of production are different, really did not explain this business pattern. Krugman`s theory is based on product differentiation and economies of scale. For example, a jeep and a Volkswagen are the two cars, but they are very differentiated, as the consumer sees. And both benefit from economies of scale; In other words, the larger the production, the more costs can be reduced in a wide range of volumes.
Unlike wheat, where costs increase as quantity increases, the cost of each additional automobile produced decreases as production is increased, although with a very large volume of production costs likely increases. . . .