“membership,” the place where a country becomes a party to an international agreement already negotiated and signed by other countries. It has the same legal effect as ratification, acceptance and approval. Membership usually takes place after the agreement comes into force, but it can also take place in advance depending on the terms of the agreement. A country`s ability to accede to the agreement is conditional on obtaining the national authorization necessary to accede to the agreement. The nature of this national consent depends on the national constitution and the legal framework of each country. In Australia, for example, the only precondition is the announcement and introduction of the agreement in Parliament, while in Mexico, Senate approval is also required. In the United States, international agreements can be concluded in a variety of ways, including by the authority of the President, including where an agreement complies with existing U.S. law. Countries “deposit” their instruments with the Secretary-General designated “custodian” by the Paris Agreement. The instruments themselves are documents signed by the Head of State, which show that the government ratifies, accepts, approves or adheres to them, and commits to faithfully applying and applying its conditions. At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument to mitigate climate change from 2020.
The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  Adaptation issues were at the forefront of the paris agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  Under the Paris Agreement, each country must define, plan and report regularly on its contribution to warming mitigation.  There is no mechanism for a country to set an emission target for a specified date, but any target should go beyond the previous targets. The United States formally withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would return to the agreement after his inauguration.  Historic Paris Agreement adopted. In the first truly global agreement on climate change mitigation, 195 countries approve a plan to prevent global temperatures from exceeding historic levels by more than 1.5 degrees Celsius. It will come into force 11 months later. The Kyoto Protocol, a pioneering environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time nations have agreed on country-by-country emission reduction targets.
The protocol, which only came into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for industrialized countries, based on the fact that they are responsible for most of the world`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States first signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W. Bush argued that the agreement would hurt the U.S. economy because developing countries such as China and India would not be included. In the absence of the participation of these three countries, the effectiveness of the treaty was limited, as its objectives covered only a small fraction of total global emissions. Specific results of increased attention to adjustment financing in Paris include the announcement by the G7 countries of $420 million for climate risk insurance and the launch of a Climate Risk and Early Warning Systems (CREWS) initiative.  In 2016, the Obama administration awarded a $500 million grant to the “Green Climate Fund” as “the first part of a $3 billion commitment made at the Paris climate talks.”    To date, the Green Fund for