The objective of the agreement is to reduce the global warming described in Article 2 and to improve the implementation of the UNFCCC as follows: Negotiators of the agreement stated that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient. concerned that aggregate greenhouse gas emission estimates for 2025 and 2030, resulting from projected national contributions, are not covered by the most cost-effective scenarios at 2oC, but result in a forecast level of 55 gigatonnes. By 2030, and acknowledging “that much greater efforts will be needed to reduce emissions in order to keep the increase in the world`s average temperature below 2 degrees Celsius by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius.”  [Clarification needed] In addition, countries are working to reach “the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions” as soon as possible. The agreement has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   Compare the new SDS 2020 with the IPCC scenarios with a decline of less than 1.5 degrees Celsius 1.5-1.6 degrees Celsius 1.6-1.7 degrees Celsius 1.7 degrees Fahrenheit7-1.8C 1.8-1.9C 1.9-2.0C Temperatures increase in 2100 All parties recognized the need to “prevent, minimize and address losses and damages,” in particular, any mention of compensation or liability is excluded.  The Convention also takes up the Warsaw International Loss and Damage Mechanism, an institution that will attempt to answer questions about how to classify, address and co-responsible losses.  The agreement stipulated that it would only enter into force (and therefore fully effective) if 55 countries responsible for at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list drawn up in 2015) ratified, approved or ratified the agreement.   On April 1, 2016, the United States and China, which together account for nearly 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that the two countries would sign the Paris climate agreement.  175 contracting parties (174 states and the European Union) signed the agreement on the first day of its signing.   On the same day, more than 20 countries announced plans to join the accession as soon as possible in 2016. The ratification by the European Union has achieved a sufficient number of contracting parties to enter into force on 4 November 2016. van Vuuren, D. P.
et al. A new scenario framework for climate research: scenario matrix architecture. Amendment 122, 373-386 (2014). Rogelj, J., Huppmann, D., Krey, V. et al. A new scenario logic for the long-term goal of the Paris agreement in terms of temperature. Nature 573, 357-363 (2019). doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1541-4 For more than 20 years, Shell`s scenario has integrated climate change. The Sky scenario is part of two previous Shell scenarios, the mountains and oceans, which saw rapid decarbonization but did not exceed the paris Agreement targets.