The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. The agreement was revised as part of the Johnson Department renegotiation in 2019. The amendments fit about 5% of the text.  Following the decision of EU Heads of State and Government to extend Article 50 on 10 April, the Council (Article 50) adopted a decision amending its decision of 11 January 2019 on the signing of the withdrawal agreement. Since March, the EU and the UK have continued regular negotiations despite the difficulties associated with the COVID 19 pandemic. The EU is conducting its negotiations on the basis of the mutually agreed political declaration. However, significant differences have not yet been resolved in some areas. These differences include fair competition, horizontal management of each agreement and fisheries.
EU and UK negotiators Michel Barnier and David Frost and their teams have recently stepped up their negotiations. The clock is ticking, because an agreement must be reached quickly to have time for ratification by the European Parliament. January 14, 2019 – With Brexit approaching inexorably, lingering uncertainty about the nature of a Brexit withdrawal deal or a deal is causing growing economic turmoil. This is particularly preoccupation with the technology sector and for those working on technology projects. It ranges from access to high-level staff to loss of access to the Digital Single Market, to the impact of Brexit on the complex network of supply chains and existing and future contracts covering the EU and the UK. The withdrawal agreement consists of 185 articles, three protocols and nine annexes. The agreement is divided into six parts. The withdrawal agreement provides for a transitional period until 31 December 2020, during which time the UK will remain in the internal market, to ensure the smooth flow of trade until a long-term relationship is concluded.